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IACM-Bulletin of 25 June 2017

Science/Human: CBD reduces blood pressure in healthy people

In a study with nine healthy male volunteers a single dose of 600 mg CBD significantly reduced blood pressure, researchers of the Universities of Nottingham and Oxford, United Kingdom, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, United Kingdom, wrote in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight. They were given 600 mg of CBD or placebo in a crossover study.

CBD reduced resting systolic blood pressure (-6 mmHg) and stroke volume (-8 ml), with increased heart rate (HR) and maintained cardiac output. Subjects who had taken CBD had lower blood pressure (-5 mmHg, especially before and after stress), increased heart rate (+10 bpm), decreased stroke volume (-13 ml). Authors wrote that their “data shows that acute administration of CBD reduces resting BP and the BP increase to stress in humans, associated with increased HR. These hemodynamic changes should be considered for people taking CBD.”

Jadoon KA, Tan GD, O'Sullivan SE. A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study. JCI Insight. 2017;2(12).

Science/Human: Two studies differ over effects of cannabis legalisation on accident risk

Two U.S. studies on the effects of cannabis on drivers in states where it is allowed for recreational use came to different conclusions about whether it increases accident risk. A study by the American Journal of Public Health published on 20 June looked at motor vehicle fatalities and found no significant increase in Colorado and Washington State, where recreational cannabis use is legal, compared with eight states where it is not legal that have similar populations, vehicle ownership, and traffic laws. Alabama, Kentucky and Texas were among the states in the comparison group. "Back in 2012 some argued that people would ride around in their cars crash and die. Our study proved that isn't true," Jason Adedoyte, lead author of the study from the Medical Center at the University of Texas at Austin, said.

In another study published on 21 June, the Highway Loss Data Institute analysed the frequency of car insurance collision claims in Washington, Colorado and Oregon, where recreational cannabis is also permitted. It found a low (3 percent) increase in collision claims in those states compared with Wyoming, Idaho and Nevada, where it is not legal. “In states that passed legislation approving the recreational use of marijuana, the data showed that there was a strong indicator that marijuana was a factor in considering the rise of claims,” Matt Moore, senior vice president of The Highway Loss Data Institute, told Reuters.

Reuters of 22 June 2017

News in brief

IACM: New publications in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
New articles have been published in the CCR, the partner journal of the IACM:

Cannabidiol Does Not Dampen Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Adults,

Explorative Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Intervention Study with Low Doses of Inhaled Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Reveals No Effect on Sweet Taste Intensity Perception and Liking in Humans,

Identification of a Widespread Palmitoylethanolamide Contamination in Standard Laboratory Glassware and

Prevalence and Correlates of Cannabis Use in Outpatients with Serious Mental Illness Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

Science: Educational Course at the University of Padova
A course on “Medicinal cannabis (mc): agricultural, botanical, medical, legal and social aspects” will be held at the Department of Neurosciences of the University of Padova, Italy, Academic Year 2017-18.

Science/Animal: Palmitoylethanolamide may reduce weight in benign prostate enlargement
In rats with benign hyperplasia (enlargement of the prostate) the endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamide reduced the weight of this organ. Authors wrote that “these effects were most likely correlated to the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects” of the endocannabinoid.
University of Messina, Italy.
Cordaro M, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;329:231-240.

Science/Animal: Beta-caryophyllene may suppress the development of atherosclerosis
Beta-caryophyllene (trans-caryophyllene) inhibited macrophage infiltration to the aortic surface and reduced total serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in animals. It also inhibited the production of a molecule (VCAM-1), which promotes atherosclerosis. Authors wrote that beta-caryophyllene “might have a capacity to suppress the development of atherosclerosis.”
The First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin, China.
Zhang Z, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 14. [in press]

Science/Cells: A cream of echinacea purpurea improved atopic dermatitis
In three clinical studies an echinacea purpurea-based cream reduced symptoms, reduced inflammation, increased lipids in the skin and increased lipids in the space between cells in patients with atopic dermatitis. The alkylamides of the plant activate the CB2 receptor. Authors wrote that “by exerting remarkable anti-inflammatory actions and restoring the epidermal lipid barrier, it will be very likely a well-tolerated, powerful novel ingredient for the adjuvant therapy of AE.”
University of Debrecen, Hungary.
Oláh A, et al. J Dermatol Sci. 2017 May 27. [in press]

Science/Human: Cannabis use may have a negative effect on cognition in male patients with multiple sclerosis
In a study with 140 MS patients male participants experienced negative effects on cognitive performance following cannabis use.
Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Canada.
Patel VP, et al. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2017;3(2):2055217317713027.

Science/Cells: Effects of radiation on glioblastoma cells were increased by CBD
CBD (cannabidiol) increased the effects of radiation on the killing of human glioblastoma cells. Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain cancer.
Columbia University, New York, USA.
Ivanov VN, et al. Oncotarget. 2017 May 27. [in press]

Science/Human: Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with increased cannabis use
In a study with 90 young adult women severity of posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with the risk of cannabis use.
University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
Dworkin ER, et al. Addict Behav. 2017;74:118-121

Science/Animal: Some of the effects of the plant compound morin may be mediated by the CB2 receptor
In rats the plant compound morin suppressed inflammation of the nerve cells induced by bone cancer pain. Its pain reducing effects on “bone cancer pain may be associated with activation of CB2 receptors in the spinal cord.”
Shandong University, Jinan, China.
Jiang W, et al. Phytother Res. 2017 Jun 15. [in press]

Science/Human: Cannabis use in adolescence may reduce intelligence
In a longitudinal study cannabis use in adolescence was associated with lower intelligence in adulthood, but this effect was small (no more than 1-2 points in intelligence scores).
Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.
Boccio CM, et al. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;177:199-206.

Science/Animal: Variants of the CB1 receptor may explain different effects in different species
The presence of different variants of the CB1 receptor “may help to explain differences found between human and mouse endocannabinoid systems and improve the understanding of CB1 receptor signalling and trafficking in different species.“
University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
Ruehle S, et al. J Neurochem. 2017 Jun 13. [in press]

Science/Animal: 2-AG may be helpful in anorexia nervosa
In a mouse model of anorexia nervosa the endocannabinoid 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was shown to improve cognitive function.
Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
Avraham Y, et al. Brain Res. 2017 Jun 9. [in press]

Science/Human: Cannabis use increased the risk of pneumothorax in tobacco smokers
In a study with 416 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax the combination of cannabis and tobacco smoking increased the risk for such an event. A pneumothorax is characterized by air in the space between the lung and the chest wall.
Odense University Hospital, Denmark.
Hedevang Olesen W, et al. EUR J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Jun 12. [in press]

Science/Human: Legal cannabis was associated with increased use in adults
Non-medical cannabis laws enacted in US states are associated with increased cannabis use, but only among adults older than 26 years, concluded authors of a large study.
Columbia University, New York, USA.
Williams AR, et al. Addiction. 2017 Jun 10. [in press]

Science/Animal: A synthetic cannabinoid binds to the CB1 receptor, but another site
A synthetic cannabinoid (GW405833), which is known to activate the CB2 receptor, was shown to also bind to the CB1 receptor. The anti-allodynic effect was CB1-dependent but does not seem to involve the usual CB1 receptor binding site. Allodynia is pain caused by normally non-painful stimulation, for example by touching the skin.
Indiana University Bloomington, USA.
Li AL, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017 Jun 7. [in press]

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